Monday, October 13, 2008

Kootenay Energy Conference

An encouraging event:
Kootenay Energy Conference
October 17-18, 2008 at Selkirk College, Castlegar, British Columbia

Post Carbon Cities Program Manager Daniel Lerch will present via webcast to the Municipal Planners and Leaders Seminar on Friday, Oct 17, 2008, to an invited audience of planners and elected officials.

Post Carbon Institute Senior Fellow Richard Heinberg will present via webcast on Saturday, October 18, 2008 to the general audience at the Kootenay Energy Conference, presented by Selkirk College and Kootenay Association for Science and Technology.

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

BC Rivers Day - September 28

Fraser River valley. Photo © Stanton Newman

"BC Rivers Day began in 1980 with 40 volunteers helping to clean up a stretch of the Thompson River. The event has now grown to become the biggest celebration of its kind in North America. It has been proclaimed by the BC Government and by more than 90 cities and municipalities across the province."

Hundreds of our rivers are being threatened by private power companies who would like to build dams, transmission lines, and miles of pipelines in pristine areas. Let's find a way to celebrate the beautiful rivers we have and find out how to help save them.

Sunday, September 21, 2008

The arts have great potential in the BC Interior

Here's an article from The Tyee that invites thought and may inspire more ideas and action. At least, here are a few extracts. If they interest you, check out the full article.
Some of Canada's most renowned work, Inuit and Northwest Coast aboriginal art, is some of the most remotely produced. End-of-the-road communities like Atlin and Wells have been put them on the map because of their artistic resources. Yet existing arts and culture in rural areas, particularly in B.C.'s northern region, have traditionally gone unrecognized by urban centres and remain largely under-funded.
In its 2006-2007 annual report, the B.C. Arts Council recognized the importance of arts and culture in building community by noting that, "Cultural tourism, the fastest growing segment of the tourism industry, is emerging as a key element of new economic development plans in many communities. The need to develop the arts and cultural products in conjunction with the infrastructure of transportation, accommodation, restaurants and marketing is only now being understood."

Read it all

From Indian Summer into Equinox

After an impressive Indian Summer, the turn of the year may be a little harder than usual to adjust to . . . and not just for us humans:

Friday, August 15, 2008

Chris Czajkowski's summer at Nuk Tessli filled with colour and adventure

Chris Czajkowski's photo-journals chronicle the mountain and floral beauty of summer in her corner of BC's Chilcotin wilderness - and a bit of adventure too. Here's a sample from the 2008 journals:

Friday, August 08, 2008

The only inland temperate rainforest in the world

An ancient interior BC cedar forest is getting attention and, fortunately, also some extra care. This may include government protection.

More on this story

Friday, July 04, 2008

Birds From a Cariboo Deck No.8: Evening Grosbeak



Those of you living in Douglas fir territory might have noticed flocks of these birds from time to time, especially if you have a feeder with good supply of black sunflower seeds. Apparently they tend to follow the outbreaks of spruce budworm (right). These are the worms that descend from the higher branches on a thread of silk, until they land on lower branches where they begin to feed on the tender shoots and buds of their host; or on bare ground, where they usually die. The grosbeaks are no doubt one of an array of natural controls and they seem to enjoy chasing the moths too.

Spruce Budworm

For more on Cariboo birds, see my Birds from a Cariboo Deck

Monday, June 16, 2008

CBC: Feds plan on turning good lakes into dump sites

Long time no post!

Well, this one's not very original but it does seem important. Sounds like the federal government is trying to sneak one over on all of us; and some of it will happen in BC, turning perfectly good lakes into dump sites.
CBC News has learned that 16 Canadian lakes are slated to be officially but quietly "reclassified" as toxic dump sites for mines. The lakes include prime wilderness fishing lakes from B.C. to Newfoundland.

Environmentalists say the process amounts to a "hidden subsidy" to mining companies, allowing them to get around laws against the destruction of fish habitat.

Under the Fisheries Act, it's illegal to put harmful substances into fish-bearing waters. But, under a little-known subsection known as Schedule Two of the mining effluent regulations, federal bureaucrats can redefine lakes as "tailings impoundment areas."
For example:
In northern B.C., Imperial Metals plans to enclose a remote watershed valley to hold tailings from a gold and copper mine. The valley lies in what the native Tahltan people call the "Sacred Headwaters" of three major salmon rivers. It also serves as spawning grounds for the rainbow trout of Kluela Lake, which is downstream from the dump site.
Read on

Sunday, May 25, 2008

BC meat-inspection rules putting good farmers out of business

This fight is still being fought but already many farmers have lost their ability to sell locally, mostly because the new BC meat inspection rules have resulted in greatly-increased costs and deterioration of the quality of meat processed. Mass processing and stressful travel does not produce better meat - and, arguably can often increase the likelihood of contamination. Carlito Pablo, in the Georgia Straight reports:

An old way of life is dying for farmers such as Lisa Daniels of Powell River.

Like farmers before them, Daniels and her husband processed their own poultry for sale to neighbours and other members of their community. For livestock, they’ve depended on local butchers to slaughter their animals.

Since September 30 last year, when new provincial meat-inspection regulations took effect, those activities are no longer allowed. The slaughter and processing of meats now have to be done only in provincially or federally licensed abattoirs.

“It’s made illegal what we’ve always done,” Daniels told the Georgia Straight. “The government has said they’re doing this for safety. I disagree with that. Nothing could be safer than the meat you yourself eat and feed your family and friends and your community.”

Read on

See also:

Wednesday, April 30, 2008

'Green' power project kills fish; ducks and frogs 'disappear'.

Smaller power generation projects are quickly building up a pretty poor track record.From a recent report in the Vancouver Sun:
An independent power project on Miller Creek near Pemberton is failing to meet its commitments to produce "green power" and to protect species at risk, according to an environmental consulting report.

The 33-megawatt power project, owned by the City of Edmonton's EPCOR Utilities Ltd., had an oil spill on site as well as fish kills resulting from "dewatering" of the creek for four hours during a malfunction last September, reports TRC Biological Consulting Ltd. of Port Coquitlam.

The December 2007 report also notes that harlequin ducks and tailed frogs, both species at risk, have vanished from the creek since construction of the plant in spring 2003.

Read on

See also: With Pitt River hydro plans stopped, what now?

Wednesday, April 09, 2008

Farm to School opportunities for farmers

I thought this would be of interest to those in the listed towns. I think this is a natural if we're looking to support healthier eating in our schools and promote local food.
I am getting many calls from many eager schools who would like to pair up with a local farm (or a couple of farms) to make Farm to School happen. Calls are coming from Masset, Kitwanga, Terrace, Telkwa, Houston, Smithers, Prince George, Chetwynd, Ft. St. John, Dawson Creek, Nazko, Quesnel, Williams Lake, Salmon Arm, Vernon, Kamloops, Kelowna, Salmo, and Kimberly Schools are looking for farmers that produce fruits and vegetables - any fresh product that could be used in their salad bar (leafy greens, tomatoes, cukes, celery, carrots, peppers, zucchini, radishes, potatoes, carrots,beets, onions, garlic, cabbage, squash..etc...).

In this school year the school would develop an agreement with the farmer to utilize his/her current food products in their salad bar..and in the upcoming 2009 season the farmer would plan and plant additional foods to increase the amounts and variety of produce available in the salad bar. It would be great if the farmer had a greenhouse operation and/or was willing to consider one.

The aim is as much local as soon as feasible. The farmers would be looking at supplying produce to serve 200 - 800 children 2 times per week. In potatoes alone that might translate to a minimum of 50 - 200 lbs of potatoes per week for 26 weeks per year.

The benefit to the farmer is this He has an assured customer for now and years to come (salad bars must demonstrate they will be financially self sustaining within the first year. The children pay for the foods..the farmer gets a fair market price)

Some of the funds for the project can be used to assist in getting the farmer set up to support the school (i.e. Seed money upfront to plant the crops, funds for gardening tools to teach the children, funds expand storage, funds to contribute to a small greenhouse..etc..)

Can any of you help me in the development of a list?

If so, please drop me a line or call.

Many thanks in advance,

Joanne Bays
Project Manager Farm to School Salad Bar
Public Health Association of BC
Cell 250-961-9933

Friday, April 04, 2008

With Pitt River hydro plans stopped, what now?

Matthew Burrows in the Georgia Straight looks at plans some are making to introduce proposals for other private hydro operations. He quotes BC Liberal Randy Hawes:

Despite its sudden withdrawal in the legislature on March 31, B.C. Liberal whip Randy Hawes says he still plans to introduce his motion supporting independent power producers.

“It is going to get introduced, I would expect,” Hawes, a two-term Maple Ridge–Mission MLA, told the Georgia Straight by phone from Victoria that same day. “I haven’t got a date for you. It might be two weeks or it might be four weeks.”

and John Calvert of SFU:

SFU associate professor John Calvert, author of Liquid Gold: Energy Privatization in British Columbia (Fernwood, 2007), argues that B.C. Hydro’s large public revenue stream, combined with 20-year fixed-term power-purchase agreements, is being used as “collateral” by the smaller private producers to borrow money for getting the projects off the ground.

“Then they build the power plant,” Calvert told the Straight. “So when the water licence expires in 40 years, what does the government do? It is likely to renew it, because otherwise they are going to have to tell the company that owns the land and the power plant to shut everything down. I think it is very unlikely that future governments would be in a position to do that.”

Complete article

Sunday, March 30, 2008

Great Horned Owl family on livecam at Thompson Rivers U in Kamloops

Thompson Rivers University has a pair of horned owls nesting on campus and is sharing the experience around the world via streaming live video. The parents are taking care of two offspring. Urban nesting is unusual and the nesting is a little earlier than usual. The family seems to be doing well.

Live Video - Horned Owls nest on campus

More about the Great Horned Owl

Great Horned Owl photo by Zest-pk under a Creative Commons License.

More BC Interior birds

Friday, March 28, 2008

Rafe Mair speaks at hearing on privatizing power on BC's Upper Pitt River

Well, the Pitt River project has been stopped (one down, many more to go) and here's likely one reason why:

It seems there are many more plans like this one (similar enough) so those of us in the Interior will soon be more directly involved. This is a province-wide plan.

Update (March 31, 2008): Rafe Mair: Pitt River Victory

The premier can see that he's going to be in trouble all over the province on this issue. The advice given at the meeting - and roundly applauded - was that everyone ought to set aside party politics in the next election and, instead, only support candidates who oppose the Run of Rivers Projects and unequivocally support public power.
Premier Campbell wanted to avoid having the Pitt used as a rallying cry in the election in May '09.
I have news for Mr. Campbell. This fight will be taken right around the province and the Pitt will be a rallying cry - a symbol of what an aroused public can do.
The Campbell government has three options. It can tube the entire exercise (it won't). It can try to bulldoze its way through (a very dangerous tactic). Or more likely, it can suspend the program until the next election has passed.
Read the whole article

Monday, March 24, 2008

Is Green Power 'Theft'?

My previous post reflects only a small part of the concern that's growing amongst many regarding the plan to privatize hydro-electric dams to extract power from BC rivers.

As with all "stories", there is another side. In my view the story of what's already in the works with these dams has been a hidden story, hidden because the rationale for use of our river resources in this way was never clearly disclosed to the citizens of this province. All the same, there is a case to be made and Murray, the author of this fair-minded, clear and informed counter-argument has agreed to have his views re-printed here

NOTE: I've added links to a few of his references and moved his footnotes into the body of the text, though in a smaller font.

As he says, he is open to comments, questions and argument. You can add your comments below (I've got the ball rolling with a couple of my own) but, if you prefer to communicate directly with Murray, you can send your message to him via me.



I am a proud part owner of the Upper Pitt River power project (I am not a principal of Run of River Power Corporation. Nor do I claim to be an expert in any of the areas I am going to talk about. The opinions are my own, and the facts I cite are the ones I have come across as an interested and concerned investor.). My thanks [for] the opportunity to provide another side of the story to “Power Play: The Theft of B.C.’s Rivers.”

As you watched the video [see previous post - JN], did you ask yourself “Is this a balanced review of the issue? Is it really all so bad?” Did you hear even one person who spoke from a different perspective? The impression that it gives is that there is no other reasonable point of view. In fact, I believe that properly understood most British Columbians would be in favour of the plan to construct seven “run of river” small hydro power plants on the tributaries of the upper Pitt River (north of Port Coquitlam, to the east of Vancouver).

First, by way of introduction, I don’t think I’d be a very good thief. My family and I are long-time friends and supporters of C.E.E.D.S and the Horse Lake Co-op, . . . . I have a degree in biology (marine and aquatic), and as a lawyer I was for many years the chair of the Environmental Dispute Resolution Fund for the West Coast Environmental Law Association. I now work for clients throughout B.C. who were injured in car or work accidents. I don’t claim to be the greenest guy around, but I do what I can. And I believe that the single greatest threat facing us and our planet is climate change. Not the cost of electricity.

There are big issues raised in this video, and I want to talk mostly about the Upper Pitt. If you believe that the private development of our natural resources is “theft”, then I probably couldn’t convince you otherwise. But wouldn’t that mean loggers are “stealing” our timber? Nor am I going to try to convince you that the government’s plan for our future electricity supply is the best solution possible. But you should give some thought to the alternatives to green power, which are (now) buying electricity from US coal fired thermal plants, and (in the future) projects such as Site C or nuclear. Finally, if you don’t like or trust B.C.’s government, I can’t say that I blame you. Their slashing of the benefits available to injured workers has caused untold misery and means I can no longer help WCB claimants. But this government was elected by the citizens of B.C., and has legally formulated an energy policy and procedure that Run of River Power Corporation (RoR) is following to the “t”. You can’t fairly call that “theft.”

But this project faces the rallying cry “Save Our Rivers, Stop the Upper Pitt Project”. So let’s talk about that.

RoR was started by a group of small investors from South Delta, and grew out of an old dream to bring environmentally sustainable power to B.C. in return for a fair return on investment. In 2003 RoR opened a small hydro plant at Brandywine Falls, just south of Whistler. Brandywine is the model for the seven plants proposed for the tributaries of the Pitt River. Let me tell you what you would see if you went there.

You drive up an old logging road into the sub alpine, at about 1,000 meters. Like the Pitt, almost all of the roads needed for this project, except the last short stretch down to the river, existed before. Like the Pitt, industrial use – logging and mining exploration - as well as recreational use goes back a century. They are both in lovely country, but you would not call it pristine. The head of the Brandywine project is a weir and a small holding pond, about the size of a large swimming pool. If you are familiar with the fish weir in Capilano Canyon, it is about one third the size of that. The weir holds back enough water to fill the 48” penstock (pipe) that runs underground down the mountain. It has a couple of other important functions. First, it is designed to fill with gravel, and to let it continue its natural migration downstream, at no loss to spawning beds or natural stream hydrology. Secondly, it is designed to allow a prescribed minimum flow to escape to ensure that there is no negative impact on the downstream environment (Mention is often made of Miller Creek, where a different system failed and the stream all but ran dry. The engineers assure us that could not happen on RoR’s projects, but I can’t get into that detail here. I am prepared to take follow up questions of this nature.).

Water flows from the stream in quantities depending on the natural water cycle (high in spring, low in winter; more run off means more electricity, and at times there is not enough water to generate any power - While the video suggest there is something wrong with following this natural cycle, the only alternative that would provide constant power throughout the year would be to dam the river.) and down about four kilometres of buried penstock laid several hundred meters away from the river. This has all been replanted, and five years later is returning to its natural look. At the bottom of the pipe, back beside the river, is a metal building the size of a medium barn. Inside are two pelton turbines, driving two generators. The water flows through the machines and out a short tailrace, and back into the river. There is no appreciable change in temperature or other physical property in the brief detour the water takes. Immediately below the tailrace you could not tell that the water had been diverted. A short power line connects the plant to the main grid that runs along the Whistler highway.

For what I believe is a minimum and acceptable amount of environmental interference, Brandywine produces about 40 million kilowatts of power per year, enough to power about 4,000 homes. That power is sold to B.C. Hydro for 5.7 cents per kilowatt hour, and you currently pay 6.7 cents per kilowatt hour for it. I’m no expert on power pricing, but that doesn’t sound too bad to me. The contract is for 20 years, at which time the water rights revert to B.C., though of course RoR would hope to negotiate an extension.

The Upper Pitt project would look like that, and produce like that, times seven. (Though “Save the Pitt” is the rallying cry, no one has yet explained to me in what way the projects would have any effect at all on the river itself (as opposed to limited effects on the tributaries.)) There are a few differences. First, while no fish are believed to live in Brandywine above the falls, there are definitely fish, including salmon, in some of the tributaries of the Pitt. In several streams they exist above the mill race, though in none as high up as the intakes (this is very steep country, which is why it is useful for power.) There is intensive ongoing research looking at the fish and other aquatic biota, and it is obvious that all these projects will have to be designed to avoid damaging any fishery. As you know, the federal Department of Fisheries is very protective of anadromous fish stocks, and it is simply not possible to build anything with any significant risk to salmon bearing streams. The Upper Pitt proposal is being reviewed under some of the most stringent and (from the developer’s perspective) onerous environmental and other guidelines in the world. The research is not finished, and in fact the public process which has drawn so much opposition is nothing more than an attempt to gather information from all interested parties to allow the B.C. Environmental Assessment Office to draw up the terms of reference by which a full environmental assessment must be performed by the proponents. While approval is by no means certain (this is far from the fait accompli that project opponents claim), I trust that the final decision will be based on science and logic and in accordance with the merits of the proposal.

A second difference is that the land around the Upper Pitt projects has been more heavily logged, and is more thoroughly crisscrossed by roads (Aerial photo). That is unfortunate, but real. And it means that very little new road and transmission corridor will have to be constructed.

A third difference, and perhaps the most controversial, is that the power line required to transport the electricity from the plants to the main grid will have to traverse a 4 kilometre section of Pine Cone – Burke Provincial Park. Because this park was only recently designated after a long public campaign, and because it is close to Vancouver, this part of the project it is especially contentious. Let me give you a couple of points that might balance your understanding of it. This is not the first time a park boundary has been changed to allow limited development. The NDP government – which recognized that setting aside 12% of the province for parks would create some unintended conflicts – was the first to use this tool. Secondly, the “development” consists of poles (placed by helicopter) and wire; it in no way impedes the movement of wildlife and, because it is a high elevation pass, is not a threat to the birds that are not there in the first place. Probably the most significant impact of a power line, as you will know yourself, is visual. But RoR says that you can’t have a visual impact if no one is there to see it, and in the two years the biologists have had a motion sensitive camera at the top of this remote pass, one person has passed through.

There are lots of other interesting and potentially controversial issues around this proposed project. This is but a snap shot of it, and if you have read this far then you have my gratitude for taking the time to try to understand another side of it. I am prepared to debate any of the points discussed, or any of the many others that I know exist around this project. But let me leave you with a few comments about an issue the video appears to dismiss: climate change.

I believe many ordinary people would agree that climate change is the number one problem facing our salmon, our wildlife, our parks, our world. Right now part of the electricity you are using is coming from coal fired plants in the US. Brandywine Creek offsets 13,680 tonnes of CO2 derived from natural gas or 32,680 tonnes derived from coal. The Pitt projects would offset 211,660 tonnes of CO2 derived from natural gas or 378,760 tonnes derived from coal. An average car produces about 2.4 tons of CO2 per year, so these projects effectively “take a lot of cars off the road”. Isn’t that kind of a trade-off worth at least a fair look?

So there’s a quick overview of the Upper Pitt. I didn’t talk about the jobs the projects will create, the revenue they will generate for the Province, or the myriad other environmental and land use issues (Check out a copy of RoR’s presentation to the public information sessions [PDF] for a more detailed discussion of the project.) You still might not like it, and you have every right to oppose it. I just ask that in doing so you try to keep an open mind and a civil tongue. And maybe ask the makers of “Power Play” and the Western Wilderness Committee why they are only telling one side of the story. Thanks for listening.

Murray Lott. March 17, 2008

Monday, February 25, 2008

While we weren't looking, control of our rivers has been taken away from us

500 BC streams risked for private profit.
By Rafe Mair
Published: February 25, 2008

Thanks to the Campbell government, British Columbia will be a much different place when they're finished. It will not be a pretty picture and unless there is a public protest of sufficient impact to get the government's attention, the new B.C. will be in place with no turning back.
Read on

and another (March 17) quote from Rafe Mair that pretty much sums up the situation:

Now we have a new environmental disaster in B.C. unfolding through a plan called the Run of Rivers project, which will, pardon the scientific term, bugger up hundreds of streams and rivers in this province. Independent power companies will make hundreds of millions of dollars for using our rivers and, by transmission lines and roads into each power site, destroy the remaining wilderness in our beloved province. All this not to deal with our own power needs but to help export power -- and our environment along with it -- to the United States!

Thursday, February 21, 2008

Birds From a Cariboo Deck No.7: Pileated Woodpecker

This is the big one around here - and reputedly the inspiration for Woody Woodpecker: not just in its looks: the calls we hear when they make their way, sometimes as many as four at a time, through the woods towards our chief attraction - suet - are pretty close to that irritating call of the cartoon version.

I say this is "the big one" but that status is among the woodpeckers. One of my most impressive backyard sites was a Sharp-Shinned Hawk chasing a Pileated Woodpecker through the fir trees: like a scene from Star Wars.

For an interesting perspective on the part this woodpecker plays in the forest ecology, read Woodpeckers, Fir Snags and Hummingbirds by Dave Neads. I chose the Pileated Woodpecker as No.7 to coincide with his publishing of this post.

For more on Cariboo birds, see my Birds from a Cariboo Deck

Sunday, February 17, 2008

Birch syrup is healthier and fetches a very good price

It's that time of year again: the sap is rising - the sugaring season is upon us.

Not here, you say? You were thinking maple, I presume . . . Think again . . . Try birch.

Three of the country's 11 birch syrup producers are in BC. And, according to my source, an article in today's Province, a 250ml bottle sells for $22 - when you can get it. Demand far exceeds supply. Here's a reason to be careful what we do with the living trees amidst the dead pines "everyone" seems so keen to take out. And, of course this little value-added enterprise leaves the trees alive and good for another season.

As if that's not enough, unlike maple syrup which is largely sucrose, birch syrup is comprised largely of the healthier fructose and glucose.

If I've got you thinking, there's lots more in the article in The Province, including instructions on how to make the syrup.

If you give it a try, some back here and tell us all about it.

Wednesday, February 13, 2008

Tyee article sheds some light on BC Native land claims

Aboriginal land claims in BC appear so complex that, given so many other matters that take my time, I seek to find simple principles amidst the details. There is little written in the mainstream media that has brought me much closer to understanding. This opinion article by Dave Porter, Chief Judith Sayers and Grand Chief Edward John in The Tyee (which is not quite mainstream), seems to cast some light on the processes and principles involved:
New Day for BC Native Claims
'Xeni decision' casts doubt on provincial authority over First Nations land dealings.

The inspirational words in the judgment of Justice Vickers of the Supreme Court of British Columbia in Tsilhqot'in Nation v. British Columbia ("Xeni decision") ought to convince both Prime Minister Harper and Premier Campbell of the existence of Aboriginal peoples, and to recognize and respect the Aboriginal rights and title of each.
Read on

Friday, January 04, 2008

Upcoming CBC Week-long Series on Pine Beetle

From a press release issued by the Cariboo Chilcotin Beetle Action Coalition:

CBC Radio (Almanac) is producing a week-long series of shows on the beetle issue running from Mon. Jan. 7 through Friday, Jan. 11. The shows should be broadcast on your local CBC station. A community forum will be held on Wednesday, January 9 at the Williams Lake Cariboo Memorial Recreation Complex - Gibraltar Room, 7pm - 9pm, moderated by Mark Forsythe (host of Almanac).

If at all possible, it would be helpful if you could attend this event or take part in the call-in session. The purpose of your participation is to bring balance to the audience and to present any relevant, accurate information to the forum from your community. Here is the line-up for the week as supplied by CBC.

Monday, January 7
Impact of the Pine Beetle...We'll be speaking to a forester who's struggling in seeing a future for himself and his family in BC's forestry industry. We'll also speak with an economist about what impact the pine beetle is having on the BC economy and where he sees things need to change. Also why the Lower Mainland should care about what's happening in the interior.

Tuesday, January 8
The most up to date research in the Pine Beetle and what's happening now. We'll speak to some researchers about shelf life of Beetle kill wood.

Wednesday, January 9
An open-line segment of the show (1pm to 2pm). What is the plan and is it working? Debate over Pine Beetle Forest Management. We'll get a First Nations perspective and environmental perspective as well.
Evening (7pm to 9pm) Williams Lake Forum at the Cariboo Memorial Recreation Complex in the Gibraltar Room. This forum will be taped and will air on Friday's show. Focus: helping communities and how we're going to move forward...what is the plan?

Thursday, January 10
Innovation... What can we do with the Pine Beetle Wood? Focus on bio-energy and new product development.

Friday, January 11
Air taped forum.

See also: